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Firing Info
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Temperature Equivalents


This chart reflects actual bending temperatures for regular self-supporting, large, and small cones depending on firing conditions and according to the Fahrenheit heating rates per hour during the last 90-120 minutes of firing.
Heating rate °F/hour (last 90-120 minutes)

Soft Series

Self-Supporting Cone108 Small270 Small108 Large270 Large
02210871094--
02111121143--
02011591180--
0191252128312491279
0181319135313141350
0171360140513571402
0161422146514161461
0151456150414501501
0141485154014851537
0131539158215391578
0121582162015761616
0111607164116031638

Low Temp Series

Self-Supporting Cone108 Small270 Small108 Large270 Large
0101657167916481675
091688170616831702
081728175317281749
071789180917831805
061828185518231852
051859187718541873
051888191118861915
041945197119401958
031987201919872014
022016205220142048
012046208020432079

Intermediate Temp Series

Self-Supporting Cone108 Small270 Small108 Large270 Large
12079210920772109
22088212720882124
32106213821062134
42124216121202158
52167220521632201
52197223721942233
62232226922282266
72262229522592291
82280232022772316
92300233622952332
102345238123402377
112361239923592394
122383241923792415
Pyrometric cones have been used to monitor ceramic firings for more than 100 years. They are useful in determining when a firing is complete, if the kiln provided enough heat, if there was a temperature difference in the kiln, or if a problem occurred during the firing.
Chart compliments of The Edward Orton, Jr. Ceramic Foundation.


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